Author Topic: Sprites and Maps in C 68k  (Read 17394 times)

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Offline Kiligolo

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Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« on: February 02, 2011, 08:11:32 am »
Hello,

I would like to program in C on my TI-89 Titanium and make one (tile) map. I looked at the code a bit of Zelda, but it was terrible...
Does someone could tell me specifically how to make a map and sprites in C?
I already downloaded TIGCC.

Thank you!
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Offline Ranman

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #1 on: February 02, 2011, 10:39:52 am »
What is your experience level with the C language?
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Offline Kiligolo

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #2 on: February 03, 2011, 03:31:28 am »
I know how to make a sprite now, but not maps.

unsigned char homme[] = {
          0b01111110,
         0b11111111,
         0b10100101,
         0b10000001,
         0b01111110,
         0b10100101,
         0b10111101,
         0b01111110
         };
« Last Edit: February 03, 2011, 03:31:59 am by Kiligolo »
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Offline Ranman

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #3 on: February 03, 2011, 04:46:40 am »
I know how to make a sprite now, but not maps.

unsigned char homme[] = {
          0b01111110,
         0b11111111,
         0b10100101,
         0b10000001,
         0b01111110,
         0b10100101,
         0b10111101,
         0b01111110
         };


First off... Here are some great resources for programming in C with TIGCC:

* TIGCC Documentation
* Technoplaza Tutorials
* The C Book


A tilemap is essentially an array of sprites. So, if this is one sprite:

unsigned char homme[8] =
{
    0b01111110,
    0b11111111,
    0b10100101,
    0b10000001,
    0b01111110,
    0b10100101,
    0b10111101,
    0b01111110
};


Then an array of sprites (tilemap) would look like this:

unsigned char homme[4][8] =
{
    {
        0b01111110,
        0b11111111,
        0b10100101,
        0b10000001,
        0b01111110,
        0b10100101,
        0b10111101,
        0b01111110
    },
    {
        0b01111110,
        0b11111111,
        0b10100101,
        0b10000001,
        0b01111110,
        0b10100101,
        0b10111101,
        0b01111110
    },
    {
        0b01111110,
        0b11111111,
        0b10100101,
        0b10000001,
        0b01111110,
        0b10100101,
        0b10111101,
        0b01111110
    },
    {
        0b01111110,
        0b11111111,
        0b10100101,
        0b10000001,
        0b01111110,
        0b10100101,
        0b10111101,
        0b01111110
    },
};


Keep in mind... in your example as well as my example, the sprite is just a simple black & white sprite without a corresponding mask. If you intend on using grayscale along with masks, then to completely define each sprite you will need a sprite for each video plane as well as a sprite mask (total of 3 sprites).

Do you understand the purpose of a sprite mask? How about the idea of multiple planes for grayscale? If not... the  TIGCC Documentation is fairly helpful.

I'll be around if you have any more questions.
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Offline Kiligolo

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #4 on: February 03, 2011, 04:52:53 am »
What is the routine to call a tile map?
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Offline Ranman

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #5 on: February 04, 2011, 02:23:50 am »
What is the routine to call a tile map?
I may have been a little misleading with my previous post...

A traditional tilemap is essentially a 2 dimensional array of sprites that represents a visual 2D map for use in some types of games.

Example of an 8x8 tilemap:

unsigned char game_tilemap[8][8] =
{
  {0,0,1,1,1,1,0,0},
  {0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0},
  {1,1,1,0,0,0,0,3},
  {1,0,0,3,0,4,0,3},
  {0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0},
  {3,0,3,0,0,2,2,2},
  {3,0,0,0,2,2,2,2},
};


legend: 0 = grass, 1 = mountain, 2 = water, 3 = tree, 4 = house

Notice that each item in the game_tilemap uniquely represents the index of the sprite that will be drawn.


Next we will need to define a sprite for each item used in the tilemap. From the above example, there will be 5 sprites and each will visually represent the items defined in legend (0 = grass, 1 = mountain, 2 = water, 3 = tree, 4 = house).

Now it is time to actually define the array of sprites utilized by the tilemap (note: 5 sprites, each sprite 8 pixels tall):

unsigned char game_sprites[5][8] =   
{
  { // 0 = grass
    0b10001000,
    0b00000000,
    0b00100010,
    0b00000000,
    0b10001000,
    0b00000000,
    0b00100010,
    0b00000000,
  },
  { // 1 = mountain
    0b00000000,
    0b00010000,
    0b00111000,
    0b01111100,
    0b11011110,
    0b10101111,
    0b01110111,
    0b11111011,
  },
  { // 2 = water
    0b11110000,
    0b00001111,
    0b11110000,
    0b00001111,
    0b11110000,
    0b00001111,
    0b11110000,
    0b00001111,
  },
  { // 3 = tree
    0b00000000,
    0b00111110,
    0b01111111,
    0b01111111,
    0b01111111,
    0b00111110,
    0b00001000,
    0b00001000,
  },
  { // 4 = building
    0b00000000,
    0b00011000,
    0b00111100,
    0b01111110,
    0b11111111,
    0b01100110,
    0b01100110,
    0b01100110,
  },
};


A pointer (or address) to the beginning of an 8bit wide sprite can be defined like this:

unsigned char* pSprite;


Example: if we need to get the address of the tree sprite, then we can do this:   

    pSprite = &game_sprites[3][0];
      or
    pSprite = game_sprites[3];


Next we need to draw the tilemap to the screen


int tilemap_x;
int tilemap_y;
int lcd_x;
int lcd_y;
unsigned char* pSprite;
unsigned char sprite_index;

// initialize the lcd Y value since we starting the first row
lcd_y = 0;

for (tilemap_y = 0; tilemap_y < 8; tilemap_y++)
{
  // initialize the lcd X value since we are starting a new collumn
  lcd_x = 0;

  for (tilemap_x = 0; tilemap_x < 8; tilemap_x++)
  {
    // first, get the sprite index from the tilemap
    sprite_index = game_tilemap[tilemap_y][tilemap_x];

    // second, get the pointer (address) to the sprite
    pSprite = &game_sprites[sprite_index][0];

    // draw the sprite to the screen
    Sprite8 (lcd_x, lcd_y, 8, pSprite, LCD_MEM, SPRT_RPLC); // refer to TIGCC docs for Sprite8 details

    // increment the lcd X position in preparation for next sprite
    lcd_x = lcd_x + 8;
  }

  // increment the lcd Y position in preparation for next row of sprites
  lcd_y = lcd_y + 8;
}


Obviously, this is not the most optimized method for drawing a tilemap to the screen; but I think it illustrates each of the main ideas well.


Does this help any?
« Last Edit: February 04, 2011, 03:08:17 am by Ranman »
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Offline Lionel Debroux

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #6 on: February 05, 2011, 05:59:42 am »
I think that this does help, because you're explaining the principles behind the Genlib and ExtGraph tilemap engines that I mentioned to Kiligolo on TI-Bank :)
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Offline Kiligolo

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #7 on: February 05, 2011, 08:06:05 am »
Thanks.
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Offline Kiligolo

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #8 on: March 25, 2011, 08:01:47 am »
up! ;D
I would like to know, with Sprite16() routine, how do the equivalent of Pt-Off() in Axe. I want all the pixels in the area where the sprite will be turn off until another sprite is displayed.
Is it possible?
« Last Edit: March 25, 2011, 08:02:08 am by Kiligolo »
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Offline Lionel Debroux

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #9 on: March 25, 2011, 08:08:24 am »
I replied to you on TI-Bank ;)
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Offline Kiligolo

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #10 on: April 13, 2011, 04:07:48 am »
I know it is off topic but how can I do a pause with a determinate time? (Bad english... ^^')
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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #11 on: April 13, 2011, 04:12:32 am »
You can:
* use the AMS timers (OSRegisterTimer & friends), based on AUTO_INT_5 whose rate is normally ~19.32 Hz (on HW2 calculators);
* use the programmable rate generator (AUTO_INT_5) directly, and set its rate mostly as you wish through the PRG_* functions;
* use WaitForMillis-type functions, busy wait loops calibrated for waiting approximately the number of seconds passed to the function. Between others, TI-Chess uses such a function for debouncing keypresses.
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Offline Kiligolo

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #12 on: April 13, 2011, 04:17:38 am »
Thanks.
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Offline Kiligolo

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #13 on: January 29, 2012, 02:13:37 pm »
Hi there!

I have a problem with grayscales and ams planes. I made a tilemap but when i start the programm there is nothing displayed but the TI isn't frozen i can press ESC key to see a big bug...
Code: [Select]
int tilemap_x;
int tilemap_y;
int lcd_x;
int lcd_y;
unsigned char* pSprite;
unsigned char sprite_index;
int key = 0, pUserx = 1, pUsery = 1;

unsigned char map1[MAP_Y][MAP_X] =
{
{01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01},
{01,02,02,02,02,02,02,02,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,01},
{01,02,02,02,02,02,02,00,00,00,00,05,06,07,00,00,00,00,00,01},
{01,02,02,02,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,10,11,12,00,00,00,00,00,01},
{01,02,00,00,00,00,15,16,00,00,00,13,14,13,00,00,00,00,00,01},
{01,00,00,00,00,00,17,20,00,00,00,21,21,21,03,04,04,03,00,01},
{00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,00,21,00,03,04,04,03,00,01},
{21,21,21,05,06,07,00,00,00,00,21,21,21,00,03,03,03,03,02,01},
{00,00,21,10,11,12,00,00,21,21,21,00,00,00,00,00,02,02,02,01},
{01,00,21,13,14,13,00,21,21,00,00,00,00,00,02,02,02,02,02,01},
{01,00,21,21,21,21,21,21,00,00,00,00,02,02,02,02,02,02,02,01},
{01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01,01},
};

ClrScr();
GrayOn();

while (key != KEY_ESC)
{
while (map1[pUsery][pUserx] != 14)
{
//Affichage

    //Gris clair
    GraySetAMSPlane(LIGHT_PLANE);
lcd_y = 0;
for (tilemap_y = 0; tilemap_y < MAP_Y; tilemap_y++)
{
  lcd_x = 0;
  for (tilemap_x = 0; tilemap_x < MAP_X; tilemap_x++)
  {
    sprite_index = map1[tilemap_y][tilemap_x];
    pSprite = &game_sprites_light[sprite_index][0];
Sprite8 (lcd_x, lcd_y, 8, vide, LCD_MEM, SPRT_AND);
    Sprite8 (lcd_x, lcd_y, 8, pSprite, LCD_MEM, SPRT_OR);
    lcd_x += 8;
  }
  lcd_y += 8;
}

    //Gris foncé
    GraySetAMSPlane(DARK_PLANE);
lcd_y = 0;
for (tilemap_y = 0; tilemap_y < MAP_Y; tilemap_y++)
{
  lcd_x = 0;
  for (tilemap_x = 0; tilemap_x < MAP_X; tilemap_x++)
  {
    sprite_index = map1[tilemap_y][tilemap_x];
    pSprite = &game_sprites_dark[sprite_index][0];
    Sprite8 (lcd_x, lcd_y, 8, pSprite, LCD_MEM, SPRT_OR);
    lcd_x += 8;
  }
  lcd_y += 8;
}
Sprite8 (pUserx * 8, pUsery * 8, 8, vide, LCD_MEM, SPRT_AND);
Sprite8 (pUserx * 8, pUsery * 8, 8, mec, LCD_MEM, SPRT_OR);
    GraySetAMSPlane(LIGHT_PLANE);
Sprite8 (pUserx * 8, pUsery * 8, 8, mec, LCD_MEM, SPRT_OR);

//Demande de touche
key = ngetchx();
if (key)
{
//Actualisation de la position de l'utilisateur
pUserx += (key == KEY_RIGHT) - (key == KEY_LEFT);
pUsery += (key == KEY_DOWN) - (key == KEY_UP);

//Verification de sa position
if (map1[pUsery][pUserx] == 1 || map1[pUsery][pUserx] == 3 || (map1[pUsery][pUserx] > 4 && map1[pUsery][pUserx] != 14 && map1[pUsery][pUserx] < 21) || pUserx == 21 || pUserx == -1 || pUsery == -1 || pUsery == 13)
{
pUserx -= (key == KEY_RIGHT) - (key == KEY_LEFT);
pUsery -= (key == KEY_DOWN) - (key == KEY_UP);
}
if (key == KEY_ESC)
return 0;
}
}
}
GrayOff();
return 0;
}

Thanks.
« Last Edit: January 29, 2012, 02:14:46 pm by Kiligolo »
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Offline Xeda112358

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Re: Sprites and Maps in C 68k
« Reply #14 on: January 29, 2012, 02:20:43 pm »
Sorry, I do not know an answer to this, but I am also learning C for the 68K calcs, so I am here just to say thank you ^-^ The code is very helpful for me to study :)